That expedition was to make world history. Hispanic American Historical Review 50.4 (1970): 645-664. In central Mexico, there exist minutes of the sixteenth-century meetings in Nahuatl of the Tlaxcala cabildo. Cane sugar imported from the Old World was the high value, low bulk export product that became the bulwark of tropical economies of the Caribbean islands and coastal Tierra Firme (the Spanish Main), as well as Portuguese Brazil. [72] Then the first such in 1542; the legal thought behind them was the basis of modern International law. The cabildo was composed of the prominent residents (vecinos) of the municipality, so that governance was restricted to a male elite, with majority of the population exercising power. Lockhart and Schwartz, Early Latin America, pp. The Spanish Colonial era in Texas began with a system of missions and presidios, designed to spread Christianity and to establish control over the region. $135.00. Spanish explorations of other islands in the Caribbean and what turned out to be the mainland of South and Central America occupied them for over two decades. [75] In Mexico, Don Martín Cortés, the son and legal heir of conqueror Hernán Cortés, and other heirs of encomiendas led a failed revolt against the crown. However, since they did not have a son to succeed them, the Spanish Crown went to the son of their oldest daughter, Juana, who was married to Philip, Duke of Burgundy. The Spanish colonial era. Hispanic Research Journal 13, no. The laws were the first codified set of laws governing the behavior of Spanish settlers in the Americas, particularly with regards to treatment of native Indians in the institution of the encomienda. [46] The capitals of Mexico and Peru, Mexico City and Lima came to have large concentrations of Spanish settlers and became the hubs of royal and ecclesiastical administration, large commercial enterprises and skilled artisans, and centers of culture. Ecuador Table of Contents. There is indirect evidence that the first permanent Spanish mainland settlement established in the Americas was Santa María la Antigua del Darién.[21]. The leader of an expedition, the adelantado was a senior with material wealth and standing who could persuade the crown to issue him a license for an expedition. The crown created civil and religious structures to administer this vast territory. Although some indigenous art forms survived, new forms and influences from Europe and America gradually became the Once on the mainland, where there were dense indigenous populations in urban settlements, the Spanish could build a Spanish settlement on the same site, dating its foundation to when that occurred. The Spanish time was basically when the natives started to learn how to live “civilized” and when they were given a soul that made them “real people” (The official … The region overseen by the archbishop was divided into large units, the diocese, headed by a bishop. Thus, it is sometimes referred to as the Spanish Colonial Flag. The X-shaped cross is commonly called "St. Andrew's cross," because tradition says that Andrew the Disciple was crucified on a cross of that shape. 87-88. Other imports were figs, apricots, cherries, pears, and peaches among others. "Blasco Núñez Vela" in Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture, vol. "Questionnaires from the Trial of the Second Marqués del Valle for Conspiracy, 1566" in, Fernández de Recas, Guillermo S. Cacicazgos y nobiliario indígena de la Nueva España. Eventually, the army also began to fly this flag, and it came to represent Spain. [85] Indigenous noblemen were particularly important in the early period of colonization, since the economy of the encomienda was initially built on the extraction of tribute and labor from the commoners in their communities. [140] With the 1992 commemoration (and critique) of Columbus, more cinematic and television depictions of the era appeared, including a TV miniseries with Gabriel Byrne as Columbus. The boundary between the provinces was set at the line formed by the Medina River and the Nueces River, 100 miles (161 km) northeast of the Rio Grande. [156], Invasion of the American continents and incorporation into the Spanish Empire, "Conquista" redirects here. Though he was not the first explorer to set foot there, nor did he ever come to understand the dimensions of his discovery, it was Christopher Columbus who first published an account of his findings. With a hostile indigenous population, no obvious mineral or other exploitable resources, and little strategic value, Chile was a fringe area of colonial Spanish America, hemmed in geographically by the Andes to the east, Pacific Ocean to the west, and indigenous to the south. In southern Central and South America, settlements were founded in Panama (1519); León, Nicaragua (1524); Cartagena (1532); Piura (1532); Quito (1534); Trujillo (1535); Cali (1537) Bogotá (1538); Quito (1534); Cuzco 1534); Lima (1535); Tunja, (1539); Huamanga 1539; Arequipa (1540); Santiago de Chile (1544) and Concepción, Chile (1550). [96], In 1721, at the beginning of the Bourbon monarchy, the crown transferred the main responsibility for governing the overseas empire from the Council of the Indies to the Ministry of the Navy and the Indies, which were subsequently divided into two separate ministries in 1754. For other uses, see, Assertion of royal control in the early Caribbean, Civil administrative districts, provinces, Frontier institutions – presidio and mission, Early economy of indigenous tribute and labor. One was the presence or absence of dense, hierarchically organized indigenous populations that could be made to work. As with many other royal posts, these positions were sold, starting in 1677. Many institutions established in Castile found expression in The Indies from the early colonial period. The Catholic Historical Review 64.2 (1978): 168-184. Spaniards had seen the disappearance of the indigenous populations in the Caribbean, and with that, the disappearance of their main source of wealth, propelling Spaniards to expand their regions of control. The royal official in charge of a district was the Corregidor, who was appointed by the viceroy, usually for a five-year term. For the Spaniards’ Tlaxcalan allies, their crucial support gained them enduring political legacy into the modern era, the Mexican state of Tlaxcala.[27][28]. [104], Spanish settlers sought to live in towns and cities, with governance being accomplished through the town council or Cabildo. Year that Mission Corpus Christi de la Ysleta was established. Spain's rapid growth from a group of small weak kingdoms fighting Islamic incursion and each other to become, though challenged, the near master of the world, is a phenomenal story. The Nahuas after the Conquest. In Mexico, the Hernán Cortés and the men of his expedition founded of the port town of Veracruz in 1519 and constituted themselves as the town councilors, as a means to throw off the authority of the governor of Cuba, who did not authorize an expedition of conquest. There was no legislative branch on that time since the laws of the islands were coming from Spain . [39], The spectacular conquests of central Mexico (1519-21) and Peru (1532) sparked Spaniards' hopes of finding yet another high civilization. Florida's Spanish colonial heritage began nearly 100 years before Jamestown in 1513, when Juan Ponce de León landed, and ended when Florida became a territory of the United States in 1821. The loss of these territories ended Spanish rule in the Americas. Spanish dominance reached all five of the then-known continents. Pre Colonial and Spanish era. The Jesuits were effective missionaries in frontier areas until their expulsion from Spain and its empire in 1767. Natural Texas and It's People Era. [2], By contrast, the indigenous population plummeted by an estimated 80% in the first century and a half following Columbus's voyages, primarily through the spread of disease, forced labor and slavery for resource extraction, and Missionization. Settled from the south were Buenos Aires (1536, 1580); Asunción (1537); Potosí (1545); La Paz, Bolivia (1548); and Tucumán (1553). [59], The politics of asserting royal authority to oppose Columbus resulted in the suppression of his privileges and the creation of territorial governance under royal authority. The Spanish recognized indigenous elites as nobles and gave them continuing standing in their communities. He was not only given no assistance in the struggle against foreign diseases, but was prevented from adopting even the most elementary measures to secure his food, clothing, and shelter. Lockhart and Schwartz, Early Latin America, pp. He claimed land for the king of Spain but was killed by a local chief. The Spanish colonization of western America lasted longer than the British claim on the 13 original colonies, but by the mid-1800s, the Spanish Colonial period … Treasury officials were supposed to be paid out of the income from the province, and were normally prohibited from engaging in income-producing activities.[70]. spain 2 real mexico potosi charles iv spanish colonial era lot 6 silver coins. [citation needed] The overwhelming cause of the decline in both Mexico and Peru was infectious diseases, such as smallpox and measles,[127] although the brutality of the Encomienda also played a significant part in the population decline. MUSIC OF THE PHILIPPINES DURING PRE-SPANISH ERA 2. Cathy Kincaid mixes disparate patterns, fine antiques, and a sublime palette in a historic Dallas home. These styles are associated with the houses, churches and government buildings of the period from about 1600 through the 19th century. A number of friars in the early period came to the vigorous defense of the indigenous populations, who were new converts to Christianity. The treasury officials were appointed by the king, and were largely independent of the authority of the governor. He was defeated by Lapu-Lapu, a native chieftain, at the Battle of Mactan, where he died. During the Pre Colonial period, people didn’t have any religion or belief because before we were free. The new territories extended through most of Central America and much of the south and west of what is now the United States. [139] Only the most valuable low bulk products would be exported. Spaniards continued to expand their presence in the circum-Caribbean region with expeditions. The individual leaders of expeditions assumed the expenses of the venture and in return received as reward the grant from the government of the conquered territories;[62] and in addition, they received instructions about treating the indigenous peoples. Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca was one of four survivors of that expedition, writing an account of it. Far more famous now is Lope de Aguirre, who led a mutiny against Ursúa, who was murdered. [7][8][9], One source claims the Spanish conquest was responsible for 1,400,000 to 2,300,000 deaths explicitly excluding tens of millions of deaths from New World disease;[10] while Rudolph Rummel claims that 2 to 15 million indigenous peoples where killed by what he calls "democide"-(government caused murder) in the colonization of the Americas mostly in Latin America[11]-(mostly implying anywhere from just over half to all but 1 so around 1,000,001 to 14,999,999 deaths.). These began a movement for colonial independence that spread to Spain's other colonies in the Americas. The monarch was head of the civil and religious hierarchies. [107], After the reign of Philip II, the municipal offices, including the councilors, were auctioned to alleviate the need for money of the Crown, even the offices could also be sold, which became hereditary,[108] so that the government of the cities went on to hands of urban oligarchies. Audiencia judgments and other functions became more tied to the locality and less to the crown and impartial justice. Some aspects of the pre-colonial period have survived into our time. On March 31, 1492, the Catholic Monarch ordered the expulsion of the Jews in Spain who refused to convert to Christianity. The first expansion of territory was the conquest of the Muslim Kingdom of Granada on January 1, 1492, the culmination of the Christian Reconquest of the Iberian peninsula, held by the Muslims since 711. They were aggressive in making their investment pay, alienating the indigenous populations and Spaniards alike. The search for material wealth, the enhancement of the conquerors' and the crown's position, and the expansion of Christianity. After several attempts to set up independent states in the 1810s, the kingdom and the viceroyalty ceased to exist altogether in 1819 with the establishment of Gran Colombia. The conquistadors originally organized it as a captaincy general within the Viceroyalty of Peru. Burkholder, Mark A. and Lyman L. Johnson. [19], The first mainland explorations by Spaniards were followed by a phase of inland expeditions and conquest. The Spanish founded towns in the Caribbean, on Hispaniola and Cuba, on a pattern that became spatially similar throughout Spanish America. The diocese was in turn divided into smaller units, the parish, staffed by a parish priest. Chile was explored by Spaniards based in Peru, where Spaniards found the fertile soil and mild climate attractive. Zumárraga was reprimanded for his actions as exceeding his authority. [146] The story of Doña Marina, also known as Malinche, was the subject of a Mexican TV miniseries in 2018. In Mexico during the sixteenth-century Chichimec War guarded the transit of silver from the mines of Zacatecas to Mexico City. [151], The life of seventeenth-century Mexican nun, Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, renowned in her lifetime, has been portrayed in a 1990 Argentine film, I, the Worst of All[152] and in a TV miniseries Juana Inés. [150], The Mission was a 1996 film idealizing a Jesuit mission to the Guaraní in the territory disputed between Spain and Portugal. The Spaniards ruled the Philippines for 300 years under these conditions, continually harassed by Chinese pirates, by the Moros (Mohammedans from Mindanao and Sulu), by the Dutch and the English who wanted to take possession of the Islands, and finally by the frequent revolts on the part of the natives. INTRODUCTION Long before the arrival of the Spaniards, ancient Filipinos were living in scattered barangays and ruled by different chieftains. Treasury officials were generally paid out of the income from the province and were normally prohibited from engaging in personal income-producing activities. [95] With the 1508 papal grant to the crown of the Patronato real, the crown, rather than the pope, exercised absolute power over the Catholic Church in the Americas and the Philippines, a privilege the crown zealously guarded against erosion or incursion. Mercury is a neurotoxin, which damaged and killed human and mules coming into contact with it. Ultimately, the kingdom became part of the Viceroyalty of New Granada first in 1717 and permanently in 1739. In the eighteenth-century reforms, the Viceroyalty of Peru was reorganized, splitting off portions to form the Viceroyalty of New Granada (Colombia) (1739) and the Viceroyalty of Rio de la Plata (Argentina) (1776), leaving Peru with jurisdiction over Peru, Charcas, and Chile. [67], Provinces in the Spanish Empire had a royal treasury controlled by a set of oficiales reales (royal officials). Farriss, Nancy Marguerite. His fall from power is viewed as an example of the weakening of the crown in the mid-seventeenth century since it failed to protect their duly appointed bishop. We have included primary sources, databases, and print material that may be of … Peru was the last territory in the continent under Spanish rule, which ended on 9 December 1824 at the Battle of Ayacucho (Spanish rule continued until 1898 in Cuba and Puerto Rico). Caste and Class Structure in Colonial Spanish AmericaDuring most of the colonial era, Spanish American society had a pyramidal structure with a small number of Spaniards at the top, a group of mixedrace people beneath them, and at the bottom a large indigenous population and small number of slaves, usually of African origin. From the Spanish viewpoint, their source of labor and viability of their own settlements was at risk. The missions were managed by friars from the order of St. Francis – the Franciscans — and were placed in lands that had been home to Native Americans for … Pedro de Mendoza and Domingo Martínez de Irala, who led the original expedition, went inland and founded Asunción, Paraguay, which became the Spaniards' base. [citation needed] In Peru, the indigenous Amerindian pre-contact population of around 6.5 million declined to 1 million by the early 17th century. In 1506, Philip came to rule Spain as Philip I, regent to his young son Charles. Ida Altman, S.L. This guide covers all colonial possessions in the Americas, so although there is an emphasis on the British Colonies, it also includes material about French and Spanish possessions. But the indigenous allies had much to gain by throwing off Aztec rule. The Kingdom of Portugal authorized a series of voyages down the coast of Africa and when they rounded the southern tip, were able to sail to India and further east. Spaniards spent over 25 years in the Caribbean where their initial high hopes of dazzling wealth gave way to continuing exploitation of disappearing indigenous populations, exhaustion of local gold mines, initiation of cane sugar cultivation as an export product, and importation of African slaves as a labor force. The second factor was the disease. [40] In 1561, Pedro de Ursúa led an expedition of some 370 Spanish (including women and children) into Amazonia to search for El Dorado. Ships and cargoes were registered, and emigrants vetted to prevent migration of anyone not of old Christian heritage, (i.e., with no Jewish or Muslim ancestry), and facilitated the migration of families and women. The Maya world: Yucatec culture and society, 1550-1850. The Philippines, ruled from Mexico City was a Spanish territory for 333 years (1565-1898).. Saint Augustine, FL The film starred Robert De Niro, Jeremy Irons, and Liam Neeson and It won an Academy Award. The officials of the royal treasury included up to four positions: a tesorero (treasurer), who guarded money on hand and made payments; a contador (accountant or comptroller), who recorded income and payments, maintained records, and interpreted royal instructions; a factor, who guarded weapons and supplies belonging to the king, and disposed of tribute collected in the province; and a veedor (overseer), who was responsible for contacts with native inhabitants of the province, and collected the king's share of any war booty. It has been estimated that over 1.86 million Spaniards emigrated to Latin America in the period between 1492 and 1824, with millions more continuing to immigrate following independence. The Spanish colonial period lasted much longer than the French (ranging from the mid-16th through early 19th centuries) and so there is a wider degree of stylistic change. The Spanish Colonial Tradition in Philippine Visual Arts. [29][30][31][32] But not until the Spanish conquest of Peru was the conquest of the Aztecs matched in scope by the victory over the Inca empire in 1532. But the importation of horses transformed warfare for both the Spaniards and the indigenous. Music of the philippines during pre spanish era 1. Although today Buenos Aires at the mouth of Rio de la Plata is a major metropolis, it held no interest for Spaniards and the 1535-36 settlement failed and was abandoned by 1541. The crown attempted to curb Spaniards' exploitation, banning Spaniards' bequeathing their private grants of indigenous communities' tribute and encomienda labor in 1542 in the New Laws. The two main areas of Spanish settlement after 1550 were Mexico and Peru, the sites of the Aztec and Inca indigenous civilizations. There was surface gold found in early islands, and holders of encomiendas put the indigenous to work panning for it. [24][25][26], The capture of the Aztec emperor Moctezuma II by Cortés was not a brilliant stroke of innovation, but came from the playbook that the Spanish developed during their period in the Caribbean. During the Spanish colonial period from the 16th to the 19th century, the racial mixture in the Philippines occurred on a quite smaller scale as compared to the other Spanish territories. Inquisitional powers were initially vested in bishops, who could root out idolatry and heresy. They also imported cane sugar, which was a high-value crop in early Spanish America. The Spanish did establish the settlement of Chile in 1541, founded by Pedro de Valdivia. Religious orders had their own internal regulations and leadership. Their central official and ceremonial area was built on top of Aztec palaces and temples. Mining regions in both Mexico were remote, outside the zone of indigenous settlement in central and southern Mexico Mesoamerica, but mines in Zacatecas (founded 1548) and Guanajuato (founded 1548) were key hubs in the colonial economy. During the Napoleonic Peninsular War in Europe between France and Spain, assemblies called juntas were established to rule in the name of Ferdinand VII of Spain. Cattle multiplied quickly in areas where little else could turn a profit for Spaniards, including northern Mexico and the Argentine pampas. 1500–1850), Timeline of imperialism § Colonization of North America, "Victimario Histórico Militar Capítulo IX De las 16 mayores Guerras y Genocidios del siglo XVI de 60.000 a 3.000.000 de muertos", "DEATH BY GOVERNMENT Chapter 3 Pre-Twentieth Century Democide", Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture 1996, "Su Majestad quiere gobernar: la Administración española en Indias durante los siglos XVI y XVII", "Las instituciones políticas en la región de Cuyo", "El gobierno y la imagen de la Monarquía Hispánica en los viajeros de los siglos XVI y XVII. [61] To carry out the expedition (entrada), which entailed exploration, conquest, and initial settlement of the territory, the king, as sovereign, and the appointed leader of an expedition (adelantado) agreed to an itemized contract (capitulación), with the specifics of the conditions of the expedition in a particular territory. $100.00. Potosí (founded 1545) was in the zone of dense indigenous settlement, so that labor could be mobilized on traditional patterns to extract the ore. An important element for productive mining was mercury for processing high-grade ore. Peru had a source in Huancavelica (founded 1572), while Mexico had to rely on mercury imported from Spain. Beginning with the 1492 arrival of Christopher Columbus in the Caribbean and gaining control over more territory for over three centuries, the Spanish Empire would expand across the Caribbean Islands, half of South America, most of Central America and much of North America. There is debate about the impact of ranching on the environment in the colonial era, with sheep herding being called out for its negative impact, while other contest that. Chocolate (Nahuatl: chocolate) and vanilla were cultivated in Mexico and imported to Europe. This began the intense interest in and subsequent conquest of the "New World," that area we now know as America. The Jesuits resisted crown control, refusing to pay the tithe on their estates that supported the ecclesiastical hierarchy and came into conflict with bishops. We had everything in our hands and we were free to do anything we wanted. The crown set the indigenous communities legally apart from Spaniards (as well as Blacks), who comprised the República de Españoles, with the creation of the República de Indios. Florida's Spanish colonial heritage began nearly 100 years before Jamestown in 1513, when Juan Ponce de León landed, and ended when Florida became a territory of the United States in 1821. Gold existed in only small amounts, and the indigenous peoples died off in massive numbers. The labor of dense populations of Tainos were allocated to Spanish settlers in an institution known as the encomienda, where particular indigenous settlements were awarded to individual Spaniards. Khan Academy is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization. Spanish Colonial History; Spanish Colonial History. [51] In southern Chile and the pampas, the Araucanians (Mapuche) prevented further Spanish expansion. Cities were governed on the same pattern as in Spain and in the Indies the city was the framework of Spanish life. The end of the Habsburg dynasty in 1700 saw major administrative reforms in the eighteenth century under the Bourbon monarchy, starting with the first Spanish Bourbon monarch, Philip V (r. 1700-1746) and reaching its apogee under Charles III (r. 1759-1788). The crown asserted is authority and sovereignty of the territory and vassals it claimed, collected taxes, maintained public order, meted out justice, and established policies for governance of large indigenous populations. 32084. The Spaniards systematically attempted to transform structures of indigenous governance to those more closely resembling those of Spaniards, so the indigenous city-state became a Spanish town and the indigenous noblemen who ruled became officeholders of the town council (cabildo). [102] This direct correspondence of the Audiencia with the Council of the Indies made it possible for the Council to give the Audiencia direction on general aspects of government.[99]. They were initially a scarce commodity, but horse breeding became an active industry. We had everything in our hands and we were free to do anything we wanted. The early Caribbean proved a massive disappointment for Spaniards, who had hoped to find mineral wealth and exploitable indigenous populations. While it sought to duplicate the Spanish lifeways of the Old World, it created its own unique traditions, identities, and cuisines. Most agriculture and ranching supplied local needs, since transportation was difficult, slow, and expensive. Philippine Literature Under Spanish Colonial 24. The United States took occupation of Cuba, the Philippines, and Puerto Rico. In 1532 at the Battle of Cajamarca a group of Spaniards under Francisco Pizarro and their indigenous Andean Indian auxiliaries native allies ambushed and captured the Emperor Atahualpa of the Inca Empire. [78][79][80][81][82], The exploitation and demographic catastrophe that indigenous peoples experienced from Spanish rule in the Caribbean also occurred Best was gold, but silver was found in abundance. The rural regions remained highly indigenous, with little interface between the large numbers of indigenous and the small numbers of the República de Españoles, which included Blacks and mixed-race castas. It consisted of a number of opposing views about the way natives were to be integrated into colonial life, their conversion to Christianity and their rights and obligations. Matthäus Merian, Dreyzehender Theil Americae, 1628. The crown established control over trade and emigration to the Indies with the 1503 establishment the Casa de Contratación (House of Trade) in Seville. The Spanish at first viewed the Philippines as a stepping-stone to the riches of the East Indies (Spice Islands), but, even after the Portuguese and Dutch had foreclosed that possibility, the Spanish still maintained their presence in the archipelago. A caste system, like that used in the Spanish America, existed in the Philippines, with some explicit differences. [73], The Valladolid debate (1550–1551) was the first moral debate in European history to discuss the rights and treatment of a colonized people by colonizers. Another major export product was cochineal, a color-fast red dye made from dried bugs living on cacti. Spaniards established a network of settlements in areas they conquered and controlled. Archbishop Juan Rodríguez de Fonseca, Isabella's confessor, was tasked with reining in Columbus's independence. None of the areas dominated the others in terms of population or natural resources. [124][125] When the formal institution of the Inquisition was established in 1571, indigenous peoples were excluded from its jurisdiction on the grounds that they were neophytes, new converts, and not capable of understanding religious doctrine. $100.00. Viceroys were responsible for good governance of their territories, economic development, and humane treatment of the indigenous populations.[98]. STUDY. American colonial architecture includes several building design styles associated with the colonial period of the United States, including First Period English (late-medieval), French Colonial, Spanish Colonial, Dutch Colonial, and Georgian. The Spanish network needed a port city so that inland settlements could be connected by sea to Spain. Although implementation was slow and incomplete, it was an assertion of royal power over the clergy and the quality of parish priests improved, since the Ordenanza mandated competitive examination to fill vacant positions. They forbade the maltreatment of natives, and endorsed the Indian Reductions with attempts of conversion to Catholicism. [89][90] For the Andean area, there are an increasing number of publications as well. [116], The other frontier institution was the religious mission to convert the indigenous populations. Cañeque, Alejandro "The Political and Institutional History of Colonial Spanish America", Weber, David J. •A mission was a settlement set up in Indian Territory.Friars, or members of clergy who belong to religious groups, invited Indians to live at the missions. During a financial crisis in the late seventeenth century, the crown began selling Audiencia appointments, and American-born Spaniards held 45% of Audiencia appointments. Vol. Important ones include Santiago de Guatemala (1524); Puebla (1531); Querétaro (ca. By Kaitlin Petersen. For the colony's continued existence, a reliable source of labor was needed. Viceroyalties were the largest territory unit of administration in the civil and religious spheres and the boundaries of civil and ecclesiastical governance coincided by design, to ensure crown control over both bureaucracies. In the first settlements in the Caribbean, the Spaniards deliberately brought animals and plants that transformed the ecological landscape. The most prominent example is in Puebla, Mexico, when Bishop Juan de Palafox y Mendoza was driven from his bishopric by the Jesuits. Their role in judicial affairs and in overseeing the implementation of royal legislation made their decisions important for the communities they served." Cline, and Javier Pescador, Cook, David Noble. The pope was the head of the Catholic Church, but the granting of the Patronato Real to the Spanish monarchy gave the king the power of appointment (patronage) of ecclesiastics. Philippine Spanish Colonial Period. Spanish authorities used to confine state prisoners in the hole to the brimful without food and water and just sufficient air to prevent them from dying immediately. Until his dying day, Columbus was convinced that he had reached Asia, the Indies. [16][17] For the conquest era, two names of Spaniards are generally known because they led the conquests of high indigenous civilizations, Hernán Cortés, leader of the expedition that conquered the Aztecs of Central Mexico, and Francisco Pizarro, leader of the conquest of the Inca in Peru. Missions in Texas •The mission-presidio system: used by Spanish to gain control in other parts of the new world. The largest population in Spanish America was and remained indigenous, what Spaniards called "Indians" (indios), a category that did not exist before the arrival of the Europeans. [15] Expeditions required authorization by the crown, which laid out the terms of such expedition. [153] Seventeenth-century Mexican trickster, Martín Garatuza was the subject of a late nineteenth-century novel by Mexican politician and writer, Vicente Riva Palacio. Icons brought by the friars were used as models for sculpture. 25. The British Empire offered support, wanting to end the Spanish monopoly on trade with its colonies in the Americas. Attitude of the Spanish clergy in the early phase – Spanish friars was forced to learn the native language of the peoples they sought to convert. In the early colonial period, the transatlantic import-export trade based on sliver was controlled by Spanish merchants who visited the Americas for short periods of time. The exchange did not go one way. [132][133][134] In Mexico, the labor force had to be lured from elsewhere in the colony, and was not based on traditional systems of rotary labor. 1 South Castillo Drive Among this first group was Toribio de Benavente, known now as Motolinia, the Nahuatl word for poor.[119][120]. From that misperception the Spanish called the indigenous peoples of the Americas, "Indians" (indios), lumping a multiplicity of civilizations, groups, and individuals into a single category of The Other. The new territories extended through most of Central America and much of the south and west of what is now the United States. An immediate consequence was the birth of many mixed-blood–mostly illegitimate–offspring. MacIas, Rosario Marquez; MacÍas, Rosario Márquez (1995). "Cook, Sherburne F. 1976b. Spaniards waged a fifty-year war (ca. Although, they were living separately, they were similar in many ways, their religion, mode of dressing, houses, system of government and … • Spanish colonization in the Philippines started in 1565 during the time of Miguel Lopez de Legazpi, the first Spanish governor- general in the Philippines. However, the Spanish Empire could not have ruled these vast territories and dense indigenous populations without utilizing the existing indigenous political and economic structures at the local level. "Latinized" America was a diverse, capable, and often complex society. The composition of the expedition was the standard pattern, with a senior leader, and participating men investing in the enterprise with the full expectation of rewards if they did not lose their lives. “House of Welser” in Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture, vol. The New Spanish Colonial Period (1521-1821) The Philippine Islands first came to the attention of Europeans when Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan landed there in 1521, claiming the lands for Spain. In 1542 Las Casas wrote a damning account of this genocide, A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies. The crown had authority to draw the boundaries for dioceses and parishes. Mounted indigenous warriors were significant foes for Spaniards. $25.00 shipping. Even so, the Colonial Period (1492-1810) stands out as being the era that did the most to shape what Latin America is today. What best defines the Spanish Colonial Era? House Tour: A Spanish Colonial Channels A Bygone Era. The Spanish colonial strategy was to undermine the native oral tradition by substituting for it the story of the Passion of Christ (Lumbera, p. 14). The capital Lima was built near the Pacific coast. Up Next. The Spanish empire had made several claims to California and sought to consolidate its position in North America as a colonial power. Unlike Spanish expansion in the Caribbean, which involved limited armed combat and sometimes the participation of indigenous allies, the conquest of central Mexico was protracted and necessitated indigenous allies who chose to participate for their own purposes. The empire was a fragile confederation of city-states. Silver was the bonanza the Spaniards sought. [22][23] Even by the mid-1510s, the western Caribbean was largely unexplored by Spaniards. The cities were Spanish and the countryside indigenous. In Peru, silver was found in a single silver mountain, the Cerro Rico de Potosí, still producing silver in the 21st century. Physical torture was meted out to the unmanageable prisoners. $25.00 shipping. "Viceroyalty, Viceroy" in, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFEncyclopedia_of_Latin_and_mexicpo_is_the_best_History_and_Culture1996 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFLockhartSchwartz1983 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFBennassar2001 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFGibson1966 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFAltmanClineJavier_Pescador2003 (, Ramírez, Susan E. "Missions: Spanish America" in, sfn error: no target: CITEREFBrading1993 (, Don, Patricia Lopes. Though influenced by Spanish traditions from the Iberian peninsula, the culture that emerged in the colonial New World was a mixture of European, African, and local Native customs. We didn’t have anything ruling over us and dictating us what is needed to be done. "Not a Man of Contradiction: Zumárraga as Protector and Inquisitor of the Indigenous People of Central Mexico." Comparing European and Native American cultures. All of the colonies, except Cuba and Puerto Rico, attained independence by the 1820s. The early literary forms of the Philippines were epics, legends, riddles and proverbs which were told and retold by the natives. [74], The indigenous populations in the Caribbean became the focus of the crown in its roles as sovereigns of the empire and patron of the Catholic Church. 37 (2) May 1957. The Spanish colonization of the Philippines from 1565 to 1898 brought about profound changes in the life and art of the Filipinos. In the following years, Spain extended its rule over the Empire of the Inca civilization. In the following years the conquistadors and indigenous allies extended control over Greater Andes Region. 4, p. 204. In the twentieth century, there have been a number of films depicting the life of Christopher Columbus. "[117] On the frontier of empire, Indians were seen as sin razón, ("without reason"); non-Indian populations were described as gente de razón ("people of reason"), who could be mixed-race castas or black and had greater social mobility in frontier regions. These could be sold in markets and thereby converted to cash. [63], After the end of the period of conquests, it was necessary to manage extensive and different territories with a strong bureaucracy. Spain's colonies in the New World were, legally, the personal patrimony of the king, and he held absolute control over all matters in Ecuador. In Mexico, the crown established the General Indian Court (Juzgado General de Indios), which heard disputes affecting individual indigenous as well as indigenous communities. He was also Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire, probably the most powerful man in Europe at that time. The leader of the expedition pledged the larger share of capital to the enterprise, which in many ways functioned as a commercial firm. Although the structure of the indigenous cabildo looked similar to that of the Spanish institution, its indigenous functionaries continued to follow indigenous practices. $115.00. The protection of the indigenous populations from enslavement and exploitation by Spanish settlers were established in the Laws of Burgos, 1512–1513. The diocesan clergy) (also called the secular clergy were under the direct authority of bishops, who were appointed by the crown, through the power granted by the pope in the Patronato Real. Spanish universities expanded to train lawyer-bureaucrats (letrados) for administrative positions in Spain and its overseas empire. Cacao beans for chocolate emerged as an export product as Europeans developed a taste for sweetened chocolate. Pre Colonial and Spanish era. Powers, Stephen. A checkerboard pattern radiated outward. Although their primary focus was on religious conversion, missionaries served as "diplomatic agents, peace emissaries to hostile tribes ... and they were also expected to hold the line against nomadic nonmissionary Indians as well as other European powers. The expansion of Spain’s territory took place under the Catholic Monarchs Isabella of Castile, Queen of Castile and her husband King Ferdinand, King of Aragon, whose marriage marked the beginning of Spanish power beyond the Iberian peninsula. Charles revoked the grant in 1545, ending the episode of German colonization. "[101], Their main function was judicial, as a court of justice of second instance —court of appeal— in penal and civil matters, but also the Audiencias were courts the first instance in the city where it had its headquarters, and also in the cases involving the Royal Treasury. Lockhart and Schwartz, Early Latin America, p.89. [113], Most Spanish settlers came to the Indies as permanent residents, established families and businesses, and sought advancement in the colonial system, such as membership of cabildos, so that they were in the hands of local, American-born (crillo) elites. The jagged edges of the cross on the Spanish flag represent these trees with the branched lopped off. The first Spanish settlement was established in 1598 in what is now Guinsiliban. These men representing the Seville-based trading companies which had an effective monopoly on this trade. From decades of research, he made estimates for the pre-contact population and the history of demographic decline during the Spanish and post-Spanish periods. Perhaps the greatest empire that the world has ever known, the Spanish Empire controlled, influenced, or claimed nearly half of the world in the 16th-18th centuries. Western Venezuela’s history took an atypical direction in 1528, when Spain’s first Hapsburg monarch, Charles I granted rights to colonize to the German banking family of the Welsers. “Venezuela: The Colonial Era” in ‘’Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. Participants supplied their own armor and weapons, and those who had a horse received two shares, one for himself, the second recognizing the value of the horse as a machine of war. Lawyers for these cases were funded by a half-real tax, an early example of legal aid for the poor. The crown aimed to prevent the formation of an aristocracy in the Indies not under crown control. Among the most notable expeditions are Hernando de Soto into southeast North America, leaving from Cuba (1539-42); Francisco Vázquez de Coronado to northern Mexico (1540-42), and Gonzalo Pizarro to Amazonia, leaving from Quito, Ecuador (1541-42). Even so, the Colonial Period (1492-1810) stands out as being the era that did the most to shape what Latin America is today. Disease and overwork, disruption of family life and the agricultural cycle (which caused severe food shortages to Spaniards dependent on them) rapidly decimated the indigenous population. He was driven from his home by the thousands, starved, beaten, raped, and murdered with impunity. New York: Cambridge University Press 1994. sfn error: no target: CITEREFBrading1971 (, Kuethe, Allan J. In the colonial era, Spain initiated the Encomienda System, under which thousands of people and families were entrusted to colonial officials. "La catastrophe démographique" (The Demographic Catastrophe) in. Literature started to flourish during his time. Later conquests in Mexico were protracted campaigns with less spectacular results than the conquest of the Aztecs. On October 12, 1492, Genoese mariner Christopher Columbus made landfall in the Western Hemisphere.[12]. Spanish Colonial Era The story of Texas and the American West goes back thousands of years with artifacts displayed from Native American, French, Spanish and Mexican influences. Carillo In the twentieth century, Garatuza's life was the subject of a 1935 film[154] and a 1986 telenovela, Martín Garatuza. Terms in this set (24) Natural Texas and It's People Era. These lands were often quite vast. The Audiencias were initially constituted by the crown as a key administrative institution with royal authority and loyalty to the crown as opposed to conquerors and first settlers. He became deeply indebted to the German Welser and Fugger banking families. According to the French historian Jean Dumont The Valladolid debate was a major turning point in world history “In that moment in Spain appeared the dawn of the human rights”. Even though Castile and Aragon were ruled jointly by their respective monarchs, they remained separate kingdoms so that when the Catholic Monarchs gave official approval for the plans for Columbus’s voyage to reach "the Indies" by sailing West, the funding came from the queen of Castile. The Chichimeca in northern Mexico, the Comanche in the northern Great Plains and the Mapuche in southern Chile and the pampas of Argentina resisted Spanish conquest. Identify the main Spanish American colonial settlements of the 1500s and 1600s Discuss economic, political, and demographic similarities and differences between the Spanish colonies During the 1500s, Spain expanded its colonial empire to the Philippines in the Far East and to areas in the Americas that later became the United States. Often they erected a church on the site of an indigenous temple. There were few permanent settlements, but Spaniards settled the coastal islands of Cubagua and Margarita to exploit the pearl beds. Stanford University Press, 1999. sfn error: no target: CITEREFMecham1966 (, Burkholder, Mark A. Cumaná in Venezuela was the first permanent settlement founded by Europeans in the mainland Americas,[20] in 1501 by Franciscan friars, but due to successful attacks by the indigenous people, it had to be refounded several times, until Diego Hernández de Serpa's foundation in 1569. Dressing, J. David. During the pre-colonial period, it was the dominant pattern of organization of the indigenous communities. Benedict. These were often led by secondary leaders, such as Pedro de Alvarado. Also cochineal is technically an animal product, the insects were placed on cacti and harvested by the hands of indigenous laborers. Spanish Colonial Period of time when the Spanish built settlements in Texas which included missions, towns, presidios, and ranches 1718 Mission San Antonio de Valero was established as a supply point between the Rio Grande and East Texas Since their appointments were for life or the pleasure of the monarch, they had a continuity of power and authority that viceroys and captains-general lacked because of their shorter-term appointments. Author(s): Kendall, David Joseph | Advisor(s): Budasz, Rogerio | Abstract: Spanish colonial music, both sacred and secular, enjoyed a long and widespread performance tradition in the Philippines from 1565 to 1898, but this has largely been forgotten or obscured in scholarship of the last hundred years. Corregidores collected the tribute from indigenous communities and regulated forced indigenous labor. The empire in the Indies was a newly established dependency of the kingdom of Castile alone, so crown power was not impeded by any existing cortes (i.e. "The 1539 inquisition and trial of Don Carlos of Texcoco in early Mexico.". The near accidental discovery of an almost unknown continent by a Genoese merchant-explorer in the later years of the 1400s led to the greatest colonial migration and cultural exchange ever known. Although there were restrictions of appointees' ties to local elite society and participation in the local economy, they acquired dispensations from the cash-strapped crown. • Literature started to flourish during his time. "[54] Reforms sought to centralize government control through reorganization of administration, reinvigorate the economies of Spain and the Spanish empire through changes in mercantile and fiscal policies, defend Spanish colonies and territorial claims through the establishment of a standing military, undermine the power of the Catholic church, and rein in the power of the American-born elites.[55]. [110] Their functions were governing the respective municipalities, administering of justice and being appellate judges in the alcaldes menores' judgments,[111] but only the corregidor could preside over the cabildo. Explore Texas by Historical Eras Spanish Colonial 1689-1821 by Katie Whitehurst. Technically an animal product, the government was composed of two branches, sites. Of Cubagua and Margarita to exploit the pearl beds, world-class education to anyone, anywhere was actually flag! 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